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  • 中華人民共和國公安部全國公安文學藝術聯合會 主辦  中國社會主義文藝學會法治文藝中心協辦

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    地域文學的優勢和局限

    來源:新浪博客 作者:張明

    最近,我在閱讀一本《元散曲選析》,傅正谷、劉維俊著,天津人民出版社1982年8月出版。書的末尾,選取了作者“無名氏”的兩首曲辭,其中一首的題目是《仙呂·游四門》。內容如下:

    “落紅滿地濕胭脂,游賞正宜時。呆才料不顧薔薇刺,貪折海棠枝。蚩,抓破繡裙兒。

    海棠花下月明時,有約暗通私。不付能等得紅娘至,欲審舊題詩。支,關上角門兒。

      這首很短的曲辭有兩個象聲詞“蚩”和“支”。“蚩”指刮破裙子的聲音;“支”,指關上角門的聲音。生動俏皮,詼諧有趣。從文字習慣用法上看,作者無名氏應該是北京人。“裙兒”和“門兒”都使用了兒話韻,顯然符合北京話的特點。

    由于文學藝術的發源大多產自于民間,那么,根據“一方水土養一方人”的理念,作家也會很自然的與養育自己的家鄉和生活的地域產生血緣般的聯系,會在他們的作品里自覺或不自覺地反映當地的民情、文化風俗、語言和生活習慣。過去曾有“荷花淀派”、“山藥蛋派”,今天又有“京味作家”、“海派作家”、“陜軍東征”等等。一個作家,也許地域性的文學特征正是他身上的創作烙印。例如,“京味作家”老舍、陳建功、蘇叔陽、王朔;“海派作家”張愛玲、王安憶、金宇澄;陜西作家陳忠實、賈平凹等等。

    那么,什么是地域文學?地域文學的研究對象又是什么?有一些專家是這樣表述的:通過文學家(包括文學家族、文學流派、文學社團、文學中心)的地域分布及其變遷,考察不同的自然、人文地理環境對文學家的氣質、心理、知識結構、文化底蘊、價值觀念、審美傾向、藝術感知、文學選擇等等構成的影響,以及對文學作品的主題、題材、人物、原型、意象、景觀、體裁、形式、語言、風格等等構成的影響;同時考察文學家所完成的文學作品所形成的文學傳統和文學風氣,對當地的人文環境所構成的影響。

    文學與地域的關系是一個互動關系,相互影響,相互滲透。

    這是學理上的解釋。今天,我們來討論著個問題,絕大多數都是根據自己的認知經驗和長期的閱讀積累。對于地域文學的優勢,我的想法有四點:

    地域 文學的優勢之一是陌生化。陌生化既是一種重要的文學理論,也是文學創作追求的一種境界。過去多年以來,由于地理位置的不同和交通閉塞,再加上資訊不發達,地域的風土民情相對獨立,語言也有自己的風格特色。當地作家在此基礎上創作的文學作品,相對于其他地區的作者和讀者,會有一定的陌生化感覺。

    地域文學優勢之二是趣味性和新鮮感。基于相對陌生化的文化背景、民俗特點,以及文學作品中的人物的命運邏輯和故事情節,也就帶來了閱讀的趣味性和新鮮感。同時也符合大多數讀者對文學作品的刺激有“求新”、“好奇”的閱讀需求。

    地域文學優勢之三是作家文學創作的最大亮點。例如,獲得諾貝爾文學獎的哥倫比亞作家加西亞·馬爾克斯和我國作家莫言。長篇小說《百年孤獨》描寫了加勒比海沿岸小鎮馬孔多的百年興衰和布恩迪亞家族七代人的傳奇故事,反映了拉丁美洲一個世紀以來風云變幻的歷史。作品里有神話傳說、民間故事、宗教典故等等,巧妙地結合了現實與虛幻,展現出一個豐富多彩的文學世界,成為二十世紀重要的經典文學作品之一。而莫言以山東省高密縣東北鄉的歷史文化和鄉間民俗為背景的文學創作,幾乎占了他的作品的全部內容。用帶有地域文化特色的人物和故事情節,展現出共通的人性之美,人類之美。換句話說,正是地域文學成就了這些偉大作家。

    地域文學優勢之四是文學寫作的捷徑。因為對一個作家來說,寫自己熟悉的東西是最理想最方便的創作捷徑,生活里耳濡目染,情不自禁,信手拈來。

    文學的地域性涉及到一般和特殊的關系。我們在充分肯定地域文學有很多優勢的時候,也要考慮到地域和整體的關系。它應當不違反一般的文學規律,符合國家和當代社會的政治制度、理想信念、民族政策、宗教信仰、法治原則、道德標準等等。

    就像任何事情都是有利也有弊一樣,我認為,地域文學也有它的局限性。

    地域文學的局限性之一是過多的獵奇和沉湎于地方某些不文明、不健康、不道德的生活習慣、心理活動的鋪排和渲染。還有的甚至追求低級趣味,嚴重影響了社會的主流道德觀和價值觀。

    局限性之二是方言理解的障礙。例如,當年我在江蘇的一個親戚,對文學作品里的北京話有著理解上的障礙。電視連續劇《編輯部的故事》中的一句臺詞:你信不信,我把你從這里(指窗戶)順出去。江蘇親戚對這個“順”字就不懂其意,還是我告訴了他。又例如,我在閱讀上海作家金宇澄寫的長篇小說《繁花》,確實是耳目一新,收獲極大,但小說里的某些上海方言,存在一定程度上理解的障礙,而且還覺得他的小說某些場合和對話情節有時疙疙瘩瘩,啰里啰嗦。

    也許每個作家都是從地域文學起步的,最終也會成熟和發達于地域文化對他的滋養。

     

    張明.jpg 

    作者簡介:張明,現為中國少數民族文藝促進會理事,全國公安文聯會員,北京作家協會會員,北京偵探推理文藝協會會員,北京市西城區作家協會理事。1990年開始發表文學作品,先后出版散文集《寫意人生》、軍旅小說散文選《我的青春我的歌》、探案文學集《報案的女人》等。曾擔任公安部全國公安文聯會刊《家園》雜志編輯部主任。

     

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